We propose a novel classification of frogs in the family Mantellidae, based on published phylogenetic information and on a new analysis of molecular data. Our molecular tree for 53 mantellid species is based on 2419 base pairs of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, tRNAVal and cytochrome b genes, and of the nuclear rhodopsin gene. Because the genus Mantidactylus Boulenger sensu lato is confirmed to be paraphyletic with respect to Mantella Boulenger, and is highly diverse in morphology and reproductive biology, we propose to partition Mantidactylus into seven genera by elevating four subgenera to genus rank (Blommersia Dubois, Guibemantis Dubois, Spinomantis Dubois, and Gephyromantis Methuen) and creating two new genera (Boehmantis gen. n. and Wakea gen. n.). In addition, we create the new subgenera Boophis (Sahona) subgen. n., Gephyromantis (Duboimantis) subgen. n., G. (Vatomantis) subgen. n., and Mantidactylus (Maitsomantis) subgen. n. The following species are transferred to Spinomantis, based on their phylogenetic relationships: S. elegans (Guibé) comb. n. (formerly in Mantidactylus subgenus Guibemantis); S. bertini (Guibé) comb. n. and S. guibei (Blommers-Schlˆsser) comb. n. (both formerly in Mantidactylus subgenus Blommersia); S. microtis (Guibé) comb. n. (formerly in Boophis Tschudi). Within Boophis, the new B. mandraka species group and B. albipunctatus species group are established. Boophis rhodoscelis (Boulenger) is transferred to the B. microtympanum group. The following five species are revalidated: Mantidactylus bellyi Mocquard and M. bourgati Guibé (not junior synonyms of M. curtus (Boulenger)); M. cowanii (Boulenger) (not syn. M. lugubris (Duméril)); M. delormei Angel (not syn. M. brevipalmatus Ahl); Mantella ebenaui (Boettger) (not syn. M. betsileo (Grandidier)). The new classification accounts for recent progress in the understanding of the phylogeny and natural history of these frogs, but it is still tentative for a number of species. Future modifications may be necessary, especially as concerns species now included in Gephyromantis and Spinomantis.