Climatic changes associated with Pleistocene glacial cycles profoundly affected species distributions, patterns of interpopulation gene flow, and demography. In species restricted to montane habitats, ranges may expand and contract along an elevational gradients in response to environmental fluctuations and create high levels of genetic variation among populations on different mountains. The salamander Plethodon fourchensis is restricted to high-elevation, mesic forest on five montane isolates in the Ouachita Mountains. We used DNA sequence data along with ecological niche modelling and coalescent simulations to test several hypotheses related to the effects of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations on species in montane habitats. Our results revealed that P. fourchensis is composed of four well- supported, geographically structured lineages. Geographic breaks between lineages occurred in the vicinity of major valleys and a narrow high-elevation pass. Ecological niche modelling predicted that environmental conditions in valleys separating most mountains are suitable; however, interglacial periods like the present are predicted to be times of range expansion in P. fourchensis. Divergence dating and coalescent simulations indicated that lineage diversification occurred during the Middle Pleistocene via the fragmentation of a wide- ranging ancestor. Bayesian skyline plots showed gradual decreases in population size in three of four lineages over the most recent glacial period and a slight to moderate amount of population growth during the Holocene. Our results not only demonstrate that climatic changes during the Pleistocene had profound effects on species restricted to montane habitats, but comparison of our results for P. fourchensis with its parapatric, sister taxon, P. ouachitae, also emphasizes how responses can vary substantially even among closely related, similarly distributed taxa.